Peridot is the precious quality of the stone “Olivine”. It has a hardness of 6.5 – 7 and a specific gravity of 3.8. Its name is probably derived from the Persian word “pharidat”, which means gemstone.
The peridot was known since ancient times. In ancient Greece it was also known, but it was mistakenly called Topaz. The Romans knew and used the peridot, which they called “evening emerald”. It is one of the few gems that appear consistently with a single color. The greater the iron content the more intense its pigmentation.
The largest amount of peridot is extracted from mines in Arizona, USA.